Research is conducted in the laboratory, and often in animals, for many years before an investigational drug, device or procedure becomes available to clinical trial participants. Only the most promising new treatments make it to clinical trials, which are conducted to validate findings of this earlier research that indicated that the drug, device or procedure is safe in human participants. During the trial, physicians and medical staff will regularly and carefully monitor each participant to determine if the research is effective and safe. However, there is always some level of risk, and side effects are possible. You will be fully informed of all risks before you decide to join a study.